Leave a comment

What Nullifies the Fast?

nullify

Today is the 16th Ramadhan 1435 and as part of our Ramadhan Activities we have been reviewing those things that break the fast.

We looked back over our lesson on Guarding the Tongue in which we learned how the Salaf considered backbiting and lying as actions which nullify the fast.

Then we read through some of the fataawa of the major scholars from the book ‘Ramadhaan Fataawa’ which I purchased from Sunnah Bookstore recently to learn about some of the other things that may or may not nullify the fast.

book

This afternoon we are going to continue listening to these audio lessons from Shaykh Ubayd al-Jabiree, called ‘That Which Nullifies The Fast’.

I printed off this ‘Nullifiers of the Fast Hanging Mobile’ activity from A Muslim Homeschool for my two younger girls. We are not actually going to make it into a mobile. Instead, I am printing off several copies for them to colour, then I will cut them out and laminate them (when my laminating pouches arrive ~ photos will be added later) so that they can be used as cards for a memory card game inshaa’Allah.

null

Today we also discussed the hadeeth  in which The Messenger of Allāh (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said, “When Ramaḍān begins, the gates of the heavens are opened, and the gates of the Hell-fire are closed, and the Shayātīn (devils) are chained.”

We read through this article and then my son completed a page from his Ramadhan Notebook.

The Chaining of the Shayātīn during a Month of Mercy [1]

The Messenger of Allāh (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said, “When Ramaḍān begins, the gates of the heavens are opened, and the gates of the Hell-fire are closed, and the Shayātīn (devils) are chained.”

The questioner may ask, “If the Shayātīn are chained up during the blessed month of mercy, Shahr Ramaḍān, then why does evil and sin still occur?” First, before elucidating the meaning of the narration, using the well-known explications of the scholars of Ḥadīth, we begin by mentioning its derivation in the books of Sunnah. It is collected by Imām al-Bukhārī, [2] Imām Muslim3, Imām al-Nisa’ī [4] and Imām Aḥmad.[5]

The great scholar of Ḥadīth Ibn Ḥajr, may Allāh bestow His Mercy upon him, says in the explication of this narration, found in his classical work Fatḥ al-Bārī: “And the Shayātīn [here] are those from amongst them who eavesdrop [on the revelation], and their being chained up takes place during the nights (of Ramaḍān), not its days, because they were forbidden from eavesdropping at the time of the Qur’ān’s revelation; so they were chained up as an additional measure of protection (for the revelation). And it is possible that what is intended is that the Shayātīn are not as determined to tempt the Muslims as they are able to outside of it (i.e. Ramaḍān), because of them (the Muslims) being busy with fasting, which suppresses the desires, recitation of the Qur’ān, and the remembrance [of Allāh]. And others have said: ‘What is intended by Shayātīn here are some of them, and they are the evil ones from amongst them…’”

After further clarification, Ibn Ḥajr continues by quoting the statement of al-Qāḍī ‘Iyāḍ: ‘… and it is possible that this alludes to the abundance of reward and forgiveness (in Ramaḍān), and that the temptation of the Shayātīn is decreased, so they become as if they are locked up.’ He (‘Iāyd) says: ‘And what supports this second view is his statement in the narration of Yūnus on the authority of Ibn Shihāb in Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, ‘the gates of mercy are opened,’ and it is possible that the opening of the gates of Paradise means what Allāh has facilitated for His worshippers from the acts of obedience, and these are the reasons for entering Paradise; and the closing of the gates of the Hell-fire means a diversion from the desire to commit sins, which leads the sinner to the Hell-fire, and the chaining of the devils means the weakening of their ability to tempt and beautify desires.’”

He (Ibn Hajar) then quotes al-Qurtubī, may Allāh bestow his Mercy upon him, when he says: “If it is asked, how do we see so much evil and sin occurring in Ramaḍān? Since the Shayātīn are chained up, why does this still occur? The answer to this is that few of those who fast do so in a manner that meets these conditions, or that those intended [in the narration] are only some of the Shayātīn, specifically the evil ones from among them, not all of them, as has proceeded in some of the narrations; or that what is intended is a reduction in evil during it (Ramaḍān). And this can be felt, for indeed this (evil) occurs less during Ramaḍān than at any other time. Yet, the chaining of all of the devils would not necessitate that evil and sin would not occur, because there are other reasons for this besides the Shayātīn, like evil natures, wicked customs, and the Shayātīn from the humans.’ And others have said, ‘The chaining up of the Shayātīn in Ramaḍān points to the removal of the person’s excuse; it is as if it is said to him, ‘The Shayātīn have been restrained, so do not use them as an excuse for the abandonment of acts of obedience or the commitment of sin.’” [6]

al-Imām al-Nawawī, may Allāh bestow his Mercy upon him, says in the explication of Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, “…the gates of Paradise are opened and the gates of the Hell-fire are closed and the Shayātīn are locked up. Al-Qāḍī ‘Iyāḍ says: ‘It is possible that this is literal, and that the opening of the gates of Paradise, the closing of the gates of the Hell-Fire, and the chaining of the Shayātīn are signs of entering Ramaḍān and magnification of its sanctity; and that they (the Shayātīn) are chained up to prevent them from harming the believers and inciting them.’ He also said: ‘And it is possible that what is intended is a figurative meaning, and that it means an abundance of reward and forgiveness, and that the temptation and harm of Shayātīn is decreased so they become as if they are locked up; and that they are locked away from some things as opposed to others, and some people as opposed to others…’” [7]

In summary, we discover in this narration myriad blessings and glad tidings for those who believe. Ramadan is a month of forgiveness wherein Allah, the Most Merciful, has opened the gates of mercy and locked shut the gates of punishment. It is therefore crucial that people of fasting seize the advantage of the shackling of the devils, the malevolent troops of al-Shaytan, and pray that Allah, the Granter of Favor, rewards them with entry through the gate of al- Rayyān.[8] Indeed Allah is the Bestower of Mercy, Hearer of supplication.

Written by the one in need of his Lord’s Favor,
Abū al-Ḥasan Mālik Ādam al-Akhḍar

Footnotes:
[1] This version was revised on July 2, 2012 corresponding with 13 Sha’bān 1433 Hijrī
[2] al-Sahih (no.1899) in the “Book of Fasting” on the authority of Abū Hurayrah
[3] al-Sahīh (no. 2492-2493) in the “Book of Fasting” on the authority of Abū Hurayrah
[4] al-Sunan (no. 2104-2106) in the “Book of Fasting” on the authority of Abū Hurayrah
[5] al-Musnad (2/281) on the authority of Abū Hurayrah
[6] Fatḥ al-Bārī (4/706, 707)
[7] Sharḥ Ṣahih Muslim (7/186-187)
[8] This refers to the narration collected by al-Bukhari in his Sahih (no. 1762) in the “Book of Fasting” and Muslim in his Sahih in the “Book of Fasting” on the authority Sahl ibn Sa’d from the Messenger of Allah: “Verily, in Paradise there is a gate called al-Rayyān; the people of fasting will enter through it on the Day of Judgement, and no one besides them will be permitted entry. It will be said, ‘Where are the people of fasting?’ They will stand, and no one besides them will enter through it. Once they enter, it will be locked.”

Compiled and translated by Abū al-Ḥasan Mālik al-Akhḍar

IMAG3209-1-1
Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: